SharePoint 2010 doesn't allow you to install the "Complete" mode on non-domain local user accounts by default, because it's considered as "Development" environment and you should install in "Single Server" mode.
However, there are several workarounds how to install the complete farm without using the Domain Controller.
- Changing registry entry HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Shared Tools\Web Server Extensions\14.0\WSS\ServerRole == SINGLESERVER
- Using PowerShell command "New-SPConfigurationDatabase"
Alternatively, you can use Single Server install modifying installation config.xml, including the follow entry <SettingId="AllowWindowsClientInstall" Value="True"/>